L-Glutathione Reduced
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L-Glutathione Reduced

L-Glutathione(GSH) is a tripeptide compound containing a γ-amide bond and a sulfhydryl group. It is formed by the condensation of three amino acids, cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine, through a peptide bond. The chemical name is γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteyl-g
Product parameters
Trade Name: Cosroma® GSH
Product Name: L-Glutathione Reduced
INCI Name: Glutathione
Other Names: L-Glutathione; Reduced L-Glutathione; Reduced Glutathione; Glutathione Reduced
CAS No.: 70-18-8
Form: Powder
Assay: 98.0-102.0%
Grade: Pharma Grade; Food Grade; Cosmetic Grade
Certification: ISO9001; ISO 14001; ISO 18001
Packing Sizes: 1kg; 25kg
L-Glutathione(GSH) is a tripeptide compound containing a γ-amide bond and a sulfhydryl group. It is formed by the condensation of three amino acids, cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine, through a peptide bond. The chemical name is γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteyl-glycine. According to research, there are two main types of L-Glutathione, namely L-Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and L-Glutathione Oxidized (GSSG), in most normal organisms, the content of L-Glutathione Oxidized is much lower than that of L-Glutathione Reduced, and the main active component of L-Glutathione is L-Glutathione Reduced . Therefore, usually The L-Glutathione mentioned mainly refers to L-Glutathione Reduced.
L-Glutathione Reduced is present in all animal and plant cells, among which it is abundant in animal kidneys, liver, red blood cells and wheat germ. In human cells, L-Glutathione Reduced is composed of glutamic acid, glycine, and cysteine. L-Glutathione Reduced has direct or indirect effects in most life activities. Researchers have found through pharmacological studies that L-Glutathione Reduced has detoxification, anti-oxidation, anti-convulsant, anti-thrombotic and anti-atherosclerotic effects. L-Glutathione Reduced has a wide range of applications in many fields, so the research on L-Glutathione Reduced has become a research hotspot.
The structure and physicochemical properties of L-Glutathione Reduced 
The molecular formula of L-Glutathione Reduced is C10H17O6SN3, and its chemical structure is shown in Figure 1.

The molecular weight of L-Glutathione Reduced is 307.33, and the crystals of L-Glutathione Reduced are colorless, transparent and slender columns, with a melting point of 189193 (decomposition), and an isoelectric point of 5.93. L-Glutathione Reduced is easily soluble in water, soluble in dilute alcohol, methyl formamide and liquid ammonia, but insoluble in ether, alcohol and acetone.
The physiological role of L-Glutathione Reduced 
The basis of the physiological function of L-Glutathione Reduced is mainly due to the active sulfhydryl group on the side chain group of cysteine in L-Glutathione Reduced, which can protect the sulfhydryl group on the protease in the body from oxidation and destruction, and also achieve The role of protecting enzyme activity. The combination of L-Glutathione Reduced and free radicals in the body is through the active sulfhydryl group in L-Glutathione Reduced . This combination can convert it into metabolized acids and accelerate the excretion and protection of free radicals. Avoid damage to the organs. L-Glutathione Reduced can also participate in the carboxymethyl and transpropylamino reaction, so as to achieve the physiological role of protecting liver function.
In human cells, L-Glutathione Reduced is a naturally synthesized tripeptide and a non-enzymatic antioxidant, and this antioxidant is also synthesized by the cell. L-Glutathione Reduced can not only maintain the body's redox balance, participate in the antioxidant response of cells, but also play an important role in regulating cell proliferation, the body's immune response, and acting as a neuromodulator and neurotransmitter in the nervous system.
L-Glutathione Reduced has a shortcoming. It is not easy to store under high water activity. If the water activity is controlled below 0.3, L-Glutathione Reduced can be stored stably for a long time. Studies have shown that L-Glutathione Reduced is very easy to oxidize, but if L-Glutathione Reduced is placed in an aqueous solution containing vitamin C (pH 3.3), due to the strong reduction of vitamin C, the L-Glutathione Reduced in the solution L-Glutathione Reduced will not be oxidized, but the decomposition speed will be accelerated; and the L-Glutathione Oxidized that exists in itself will not change, and the stability is very good.
Application of L-Glutathione Reduced 
  1. The application of L-Glutathione Reduced in the clinical field
L-Glutathione Reduced has a wide range of clinical applications. In red blood cells, L-Glutathione Reduced has active groups, which can make hemoglobin in a reduced state, so as to achieve continuous oxygen transport [17]. L-Glutathione Reduced can eliminate free radicals in the body, thereby preventing skin aging and pigment accumulation, making the skin shiny, and reducing the occurrence of tumors [18] and arteriosclerosis, and L-Glutathione Reduced can also treat liver disease [19-20] , Treatment of nephropathy, chemical protection [21], prevention of vascular dementia and other clinical applications [22-25].
  1. Application of L-Glutathione Reduced in the treatment of liver disease
L-Glutathione Reduced has a certain effect on the treatment of liver disease. Liver disease can be divided into drug-induced liver injury, viral liver injury and alcoholic liver injury [26]. The main mechanism of drug-induced liver injury is caused by the toxic effect of the drug itself and the immune response. Most drugs are transformed by hepatocytes. Normal medication will not cause liver damage. However, after excessive medication, a large number of drugs It is converted into water-soluble metabolites by liver cells. The production of these substances will greatly consume L-Glutathione Reduced in liver cells and cause hepatocyte necrosis [27]. At this time, supplementation of exogenous L-Glutathione Reduced can reduce the drugs Toxic reaction and immune reaction, which play a role in protecting liver cells [28-29], Wang Ting et al. [30] took 60 patients with drug-induced hepatitis as the research object and randomly divided them into observation group and control group, and the control group was given Conventional treatment, the observation group was given L-Glutathione Reduced treatment on the basis of conventional treatment. The obtained treatment result is that the total effective rate of the observation group is 93.3%, and the total effective rate of the control group is 83.3%. The comparison between the groups is statistically significant (P<0.05). After a period of treatment, it is found that the observation group The patients' glutamate aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and other indicators were better than those of the control group, and the comparison between the groups was also statistically significant (P<0.05). Clinical results show that the clinical effect of L-Glutathione Reduced in the treatment of drug-induced hepatitis is better than conventional treatment, and it can effectively improve the liver function of patients and improve the quality of life of patients.
Viral hepatitis is due to a certain degree of damage to the primary liver function [31-32], resulting in a large accumulation of intestinal endotoxins, passing through the liver into the blood, and stimulating monocytes and macrophages to produce a large number of cytotoxic factors and tumors. Necrosis Factor, Interleukin-1 and White Cytokines 6 and leukotrienes, through electrophilic groups, oxygen free radicals and hydrogen peroxide and other toxic metabolites, will cause liver cell membrane peroxidation, intracellular Ca2+ accumulation, and cause calcium-loaded cell necrosis [33-35 ]. L-Glutathione Reduced can protect the synthesis, detoxification, and inactivation of the liver through the reaction of methylation and propylamino transfer to combine with toxic factors, and can promote bile metabolism, thereby protecting the function of liver cells [35]. Li Xia[34] conducted a study on 54 patients suffering from viral hepatitis, and randomly divided them into pairs according to the computer-digital method.
Control group and experimental group, each with 27 cases. Patients in the control group were treated with conventional treatment, and patients in the experimental group were treated with L-Glutathione Reduced, and the therapeutic effects of the two groups were compared. The results showed that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and total bile acid (TBA) of the experimental group were lower than those of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. Significance (P<0.05), so L-Glutathione Reduced can achieve ideal results in the treatment of viral hepatitis, and it is worthy of promotion.
Alcohol is inseparable from most people in the current life, but long-term drinking can cause alcoholic liver disease, which also includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis[36], which is mainly due to large intakes Ethanol, ethanol can directly affect the liver Cells cause damage. The oxidation product of ethanol, acetaldehyde, can also damage the structure and function of various organelles and enzymes [37-39]. It can also limit the β-oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids, leading to lipid peroxidation, which in turn inhibits The biosynthesis of L-Glutathione Reduced is also due to the antioxidant effect of L-Glutathione Reduced . The reduction of L-Glutathione Reduced will inevitably weaken its antioxidant function and further affect the metabolism of lipids and sugars. It is caused by the metabolism of alcohol in the body. Both the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation will cause changes in the structure of some organelles in liver cells, which in turn will cause liver cell function disorders [40]. Chen Hua et al. [41] conducted a study on 110 patients with alcoholic hepatitis, Randomly divide them into an observation group and a control group, each with 55 cases. The control group was given alcohol abstinence, nutritional support and diammonium glycyrrhizinate for treatment, and the observation group was treated with L-Glutathione Reduced on the basis of the control group. Compare the two According to the results, it can be seen that the total effective rate of the experimental group combined with L-Glutathione Reduced is higher than that of the control group, indicating that L-Glutathione Reduced is effective The treatment of alcoholic liver disease has a certain effect.
  1. The application of L-Glutathione Reduced in the treatment of nephropathy
L-Glutathione Reduced has a certain therapeutic effect in the treatment of acute renal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome and renal anemia [42-43]. Acute renal insufficiency is mainly caused by the damage of renal tubule cells. When kidney ischemia and nephrotoxicity, the L-Glutathione Reduced in the kidney tissue will be significantly reduced, thereby reducing the antioxidant capacity of the cells [44], Cell membrane stability will also be significantly reduced, and the probability of cell damage will increase. At the same time, renal ischemia and reperfusion after ischemia will increase the production of free radicals, and the reduction of L-Glutathione Reduced makes freedom Radical scavenging will also be reduced to varying degrees. Eventually, free radicals in tissues and cells will increase, and cells will be more susceptible to damage [45-47]. Zhou Hongxia[48] found in a study on patients with renal insufficiency that some patients still could not accept hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and there was no obvious effect. 23 patients with drug-induced acute renal interstitial nephritis were given L-Glutathione Reduced . Peptide therapy can find the disappearance of basic symptoms, which in turn shows that L-Glutathione Reduced has a certain therapeutic effect on acute renal insufficiency.
  1. Application of L-Glutathione Reduced in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases
In most patients with acute myocardial infarction, there will be obvious oxidative damage in the body, and at the same time, the body's antioxidant capacity will be greatly reduced. If myocardial hypoxia is not actively and effectively treated, it will cause permanent damage [49]. Zhou Feng et al. [50] selected 220 patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute cerebral infarction and randomly divided them into two groups according to computer algorithms. The treatment group received intravenous injection of L-Glutathione Reduced, combined with anti-platelet aggregation and blood stasis treatment. . The control group was treated with a single anti-platelet aggregation, blood circulation and blood stasis treatment. According to the results compared with the control group, the total antioxidant capacity of the treatment group was significantly increased (P<0.01). The results indicate that L-Glutathione Reduced can effectively play an adjuvant therapy effect and improve the body's antioxidant capacity.
  1. Application of L-Glutathione Reduced in Food Field
L-Glutathione Reduced has an anti-aging effect and is also known as a longevity factor. Now as a biologically active additive, it is widely used in the food field, such as the processing of noodle products, meat, fish, dairy products and baby food, and it is also widely used in the health care industry [51]. L-Glutathione Reduced has the effect of preventing pigment accumulation, and it can effectively prevent browning when used in vegetables and fruits.